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“Botanical antioxidants in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging.” Experimental Dermatology 15, 678-684.
The research concludes that “accumulating laboratory data indicate that many botanical agents, with antioxidant properties exerts anti-inflammatory, cancer-preventive and anti-photoaging effects in the skin. This suggests the possibility that specific botanicals might be used for the prevention and treatment of a variety of human skin disorders. The use of Natural skin care products supplemented with several effective agents working through different pathways in conjunction with the use of sunscreens may be an effective approach for reducing UV-B generated ROS-mediated photoaging and skin cancer in humans.”
“Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review.” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 5(8), 601-611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.007.
This article explores the information available in scientific and research literature regarding therapeutic, medical, and safety issues of different plants used in aromatherapy. The authors assert that lavender essential oil is “well documented for the treatment of abrasions, burns, stress, headaches, in promotion of new cell growth, skin problems, painful muscles and boosting an immune system.” And as for chamomile essential oil, it has been used successfully, they claim, to address the symptoms of “psoriasis, eczema, boils, sunburn and cold sores”
“Therapeutic role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and their active constituents in diseases prevention and treatment.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016: 7382506. doi: 10.1155/2016/7382506.
This study affirms that earlier findings confirmed that neem and its constituents play a role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis.
Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream.” Postepy Dermatologii i Alergologii, 31(2), 71-76.
This study sought to evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a topical cream formulation containing Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. The findings from the study suggest that “topical formulation of moringa extract is capable of revitalizing the skin and reducing signs of skin aging,” although future studies are “required to unravel the anti-aging activity and mechanism of plant constituents” that make these beneficial results possible.
Cosmeceutical Critique: Safflower Oil. Dermatology News, 19 July 2012.
According to this article, "safflower oil is one of the richest sources of linoleic acid, which is necessary for the endogenous production of ceramides, key components of the epidermal layer that play a crucial role in barrier function and help the skin retain water." This article also reported on research findings that topically applied safflower oil is readily absorbed into the skin and "is likely available nutritionally."
Topical niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness, and hyperpigmented spots in aging facial skin.” International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 26, 231-238. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2494.2004.00228.x
This findings of this study indicate that topical niacinamide “was well tolerated by the skin and provided significant improvements versus control in end points evaluated previously: fine lines/wrinkles, hyperpigmentation spots, texture, and red blotchiness.”
Niacinamide: a B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance.” Dermatologic Surgery 31 (s1), 860-866
Analyses of the data from the research study revealed that topical niacinamide resulted in significant improvement in skin appearance, including “reductions in fine lines and wrinkles, hyperpigmented spots, red blotchiness, and skin sallowness (yellowing). In addition, elasticity..was improved.”
Topical niacinamide provides skin aging appearance benefits while enhancing barrier function.” The Journal of Clinical Dermatology 32S, 9-18
The study indicates that topical niacinamide holds the potential to not only enhance the skin’s barrier function but also a decrease in the signs of aging.
Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Current Science, 82(11), 1336-1345
According to this review article on the medicinal properties of neem and its constituents, geduin, “isolated from neem seed oil had been reported to possess both antifungal and antimalarial activities.” Mahmoodin, a “deoxygedunin isolated from seed oil, has been shown to possess moderate antibacterial action against some strains of human pathogenic bacteria.” Neem oil has also been used to “control various skin infections.” Neem oil has been shown to “possess immunostimulant activity by selectively activating the cell-mediated immune mechanisms to elicit an enhanced response to subsequent mitogenic or antigenic challenge. Neem oil “possesses a wide spectrum of antibacterial action against…[many] micro-organisms.
Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol – and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(5), 1505-1513. http//doi.org/10.1021/jf505014n
The findings of this study suggest that “moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that” are potentially health-promoting, even for the skin. The authors conclude that the “unique combination of…polyphenols and antioxidant compounds in moringa provides justification and support for the therapeutic uses of moringa.” Moreover, the potency of the antioxidant compounds in moringa when “combined with their unique chemical stability and anti-inflammatory activity, makes them attractive food-based therapeutic alternatives.
Modifying skin pigmentation – approaches through intrinsic biochemistry and exogenous agents.” Drug Discovery Today. Disease Mechanisms, 5(2), e189–e199. http://doi.org/10.16/j.ddmec.2008.02.01
This review “discusses the intrinsic biochemistry of pigmentation, details mechanisms that lead to increased or decreased skin pigmentation, and summarizes established and potential hyper and hypo-pigmenting agents and their modes of action.” The authors assert that while kojic acid is commonly used in Asia as a whitening agent “it has a high sensitizing potential and can cause contact dermatitis. Concerns have been raised about a possible carcinogenic effect since kojic acid was associated with hepatic tumors.
Curcumin inhibits melanogenesis in human melanocytes.” Phytotherapy Research 26(2), 174-179
The results showed that the melanin content and tyrosinase activity, as well as the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins in human melanocytes, were significantly inhibited by curcumin that is found in turmeric. This study supports the conclusion that plant-derived compounds such as curcumin can be used safely and effectively to lighten the skin.
Plant products as antimicrobial agents.” Clinical Microbiology Reviews 12(4), 564-582
The author conducted a review of antimicrobial plant extracts and attempt to summarize the current state of knowledge, giving heavier weight to peer-reviewed literature. The review indicates that turmeric, papaya, chamomile, castor oil, licorice, olive oil and orange peel (from which sweet orange essential oil is made) have demonstrable antimicrobial activity
A Review on Therapeutic Potential of Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper): The King of Spices. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants 3: 161. doi: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000161
This study concludes that piperine increases the bioavailability of many drugs and nutrients by inhibiting various metabolising enzymes. The author also asserts that Piper nigrum L (black pepper) and its active constituent ‘’Piperine’’exhibits diverse pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial activities. The study concludes that sufficient research findings demonstrate that piperine "alters the membrane dynamics and increases permeability at site of absorption...[and] increases the serum half lives of some substances like beta-carotene and coenzyme Q10 and decreases metabolism of many drugs by inhibiting various metabolizing enzymes." The author further asserts that piperine's enzymatic inhibition "resulted in increased bioavailability of many drugs and nutrients...[including] resveratrol, beta-carotene, curcumin, [and] gallic acid [...] by different types of mechanisms." As such, the author felt confident in affirming piperine as a "bioavailability enhancer and a potent drug metabolism inhibitor."
Effect of Olive and Sunflower Seed Oil on the Adult Skin Barrier: Implications for Neonatal Skin Care.
Pediatric Dermatology 30(1):42-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01865.x. Epub 2012 Sep 20
The goal of the study was to ascertain the effect of "sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin." The study found that in topical applications "sunflower seed oil preserved the stratum corneum integrity...and improved hydration."
Current trends in the research of Emblica officinalis (Amla): A Pharmacological Perspective.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 24(2), 150-159
According to the authors, phytochemical studies on amla indicate it has a plethora of diverse chemical constituents “including tannins, alkaloids, polyphenols, vitamins and minerals. Gallic acid, ellagic acid emblicanin A & B, phyllembein, quercetin and ascorbic acid are found to be biologically effective.” Additionally, “amla is also reported to possess potent free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, immunomodulatory activities.” In terms of skincare, the review indicates that amla protects skin from the devastating effects of free radicals, and as such is “suitable for using [in] skin anti-aging.
Research and Development Report FANCOR® Abyssinian Oil
The Report asserts that "Abyssinian oil is easily absorbed into the epidermal tissue generating a very noticeable smooth texture to the skin. Even in the case of highly wrinkled and/or exceptionally dry skin,...Abyssinian oil makes a significant improvement in tone and texture."
The Role of phytonutrients in skin health.” Nutrients 2(8), 903-928
The study concluded that dietary supplements and topical treatments containing phytonutrients, including α-tocopherol, flavonoids, β-carotene, lycopene (found in tomatoes) and lutein provided the skin with added protection from oxidative damage and inflammation.
Determination of polyphenolic profile, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] a Chilean blackberry.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96(12), 4235-4242
The authors aimed at determining the polyphenolic profile (i.e., flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins), antioxidant content and antibacterial properties of maqui berry [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz]. Results from the study indicate maqui berry had 19 polyphenolic compounds – 8 anthocyanins; 19 flavonols and ellagic acid – with delphinidins derivatives as the predominant anthocyanins and quercetin derivatives as the predominant flavonols. With such composition, maqui berry demonstrated robust antioxidant activity and potential, but also showed antibacterial activity.
Anti-againt potential of phytoextract loaded-pharmaceutical creams for human skin cell longevity.” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2015:709628, doi: 10.1155/2015/709628
The authors found that the skin can be treated and protected from the negative effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to aging, by using creams and topical agents that contain flavonoid and phenolic antioxidants found in botanicals such as amla and moringa oleifera leaves.
The Stabilizing Effect of Three Varieties of Crude Mango Seed Kernel Oil on Tallow. Journal of Food Biosciences and Technology 4(1): 31-36.
This study's investigation began with the idea that synthetic antioxidants can at times have harmful side effects which might be avoided by substituting synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants "that have been consumed by man for years." The results provide useful information on the utilization of mango seed kernel oil (mango seed butter) as a natural antioxidant concentrate, as it is shown to contain natural chemical compounds that are strong antioxidants.
Methimazole is an inhibitor of melanin synthesis in cultured B16 melanocytes.” Journal of Investigative Dermatology 122(5), 1338-1341
This article compared the depigmenting and melanocytotoxic effects of methimazole with those of kojic acid, hydroquinone, and arbutin on cultured B16 murine melanocytes. Hydroquinone and kojic acid are known to be mutagenic on mammalian cells. The study concludes that although “Arbutin was shown to be non-cytotoxic and…efficient… in inhibiting melanogenesis, Arbutin is a glycoside containing a hydroquinone moiety, and it is not excluded that epidermal cells, due to the presence of glycosidases can hydrolyze it to deliver free hydroquinone. Thus it is possible that long-term use in humans of topical arbutin could lead to deleterious side effects due to the delivery of hydroquinone.” Hydroquinone is effective but highly cytotoxic and mutagenic, and arbutin is effective but also “potentially toxic and mutagenic when used for a long time.
Antioxidant and associated capacities of camu camu (myrciaria dubia): A systematic review.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 21(1), 8-14
Indicates that the “antioxidant potential of camu camu has been well established through several biochemical studies.” Moreover, the authors confidently assert that “the evidence to date suggests that camu camu could be a viable option for maintaining a balanced immune response and viable antioxidant mediating anti-inflammatory processes.
How much do we really know about our favorite cosmeceutical ingredients?” The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology 3(2), 22-41
This study indicates that research data is available highlighting the potential of niacinamide to penetrate the skin and its “potential to act as an antioxidant [to] improve epidermal barrier function, decrease skin hyperpigmentation, reduce fine lines and wrinkles, decrease redness/blotchiness, decrease skin yellowness (sallowness), and improve skin elasticity.
Effectiveness of antimicrobial formulations for acne based on orange (Citrus sinensis) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum ) essential oils. Biomedica 32(1), 125-133. doi: 10. 1590/S0120-41572012000100014
Sweet orange essential oil is demonstrated to be an effective alternative to antibiotic treatment of acne. All groups in the study, which used topical gel formulations based on essential oils, “reported an improvement of the acne condition, which ranged between 43% and 75% clearance of lesions.
Piper nigrum and Piperine: An Update. Phytotherapy Research 27(8):1121-30. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4972. Epub 2013 Apr 29
This article asserts that based on modern cell, animal, and human studies, piperine has been found to have immunomodulatory, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Antimicbrocial property of lauric acid against propionibacterium acnes: Its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 129(10):2480-8. doi: 10.1038/jid.2009.93. Epub 2009 Apr 23
This study considers the strong bacterial properties of lauric acid, a middle chain –free fatty acid that is found in babassu oil in significant quantity, to determine whether it can be used for Natural Acne Treatment as a natural antibiotic against propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which promotes follicular inflammation (inflammatory acne). The study “highlights the potential of using lauric acid as an alternative treatment option of the antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris.
Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/1924
Neem oil has been used effectively as an insecticide and pesticide. It has also been used effectively to against skin diseases such as scrofula, indolent ulcers and ringworm. In various research trials, neem oil has been shown to “suppress several species of pathogenic bacteria.
Comparison Of Abyssinian Oil And Argan Oil In Hair Care. Personal Care Magazine. 3 February 2013.
This article reports on the research findings of TRI Princeton - an independent non-profit scientific research and education institute located in New Jersey, US, and well known in the market for its applied hair science - on the effects of a brand of Abyssinian oil. Elementis Specialties sponsored the independent study that was carried out by TRI Princeton. According to the findings, Abyssinian oil has a unique molecular structure not found in any other naturally occurring substance, as it contains a high percentage of unsaturated C22 omega-9 fatty acids. And while it has a "high molecular weight" it "is very light in color and feeling on skin and hair." The study concluded that the benefits of Abyssinian oil displayed "equal or even better when compared with argan oil."
Cosmeceutical for hyperpigmentation: What is available?” Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery 6(1), 4-11. doi: 10.4103
The article attempts to look at alternative “natural, safe and efficacious skin lightening agents” available for use in cosmeceuticals for the treatment of HyperPigmentation Treatment. It states that the chronic adverse effects of hydroquinone (HQ) “include exogenous ochronosis, cataract, pigmented colloid milia, sclera, and nail pigmentation, loss of elasticity of the skin, impaired wound healing..[and] hydroquinone can cause DNA damage [and]…this carcinogenic effect has raised concerns regarding its use. While kojic acid effectively reduces hyperpigmentation by inhibiting the production of free tyrosinase and is also a potent antioxidant, the authors state “it does not find a place in the cosmeceuticals…due to the side effect profile of this drug.” Beta-arbutin, a derivative of hydroquinone that is naturally found in some plants, including bearberry, “is less cytotoxic to melanocytes than hydroquinone. Although, higher concentrations may be more efficacious, greater risks for paradoxical hyperpigmentation [where the skin becomes darker instead of lighter] exists.” Deoxyarbutin or alpha-arbutin is a synthesized topical derivative and “studies have shown that it has an enhanced sustained improvement, general skin lightening and a safety profile comparable to hydroquinone.” The authors assert “clinical trials using 2% niacinamide have shown that it significantly reduced the total area of hyperpigmentation and increases skin lightness after 4 weeks of treatment.
Discovering the link between nutrition and skin aging.” Dermato Endocrinology 4(3), 298-307
This review provides an overview of then current literature that drew a connection or positive link between nutrition and skin aging
"Glutathione as a skin whitening agent: Facts, myths, evidence and controversies." Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 82, 262-272.
There is no evidence to prove the efficacy of intravenous glutathione injections in skin lightening or depigmenting. However, there are "randomized controlled trials that support the skin-lightening effect and good safety profile of topical and oral glutathione."
"Glutathione for skin lightening: An update." Pigment International: Official Publication of the Pigmenatry Disorder Society (PDS) 4(1), 3-6. http://www.pigmentinternational.com/text.asp?2017/4/1/3/208348
Clinical studies performed on both Thai and Filipino populations have demonstrated the effectiveness of both oral and topical glutathione in significantly brightening the skin and addressing hyperpigmentation disorders. Also, the "safety of topical and oral GSH [glutathione] seems to be good."
Plants used to treat skin diseases.” Pharmacognosy Review 8(15), 52-60
This study provides a review of some of the plants used effectively in the treatment of skin diseases. It states that lycopene (found in tomatoes) have been used to protect against UV light-induced erythema and photo damage. And while people with daisy allergies should refrain from using it, chamomile has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of eczema and aid in skin cell regeneration, acting as an antioxidant and fighting free radical damage on the skin. And lastly, turmeric has been used to facilitate the reduction in skin tumors.
Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) and the constituent delphinidin glycoside inhibit photoreceptor cell death induced by visible light.” Food Chemistry 139 (1-4), 129-137. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.036
The findings of this study indicates that maqui berry and its “anthocyanidins suppress the light-induced photoreceptor cell death by inhibiting ROS production."
Effects of turmeric (curcuma longa) on skin health: a systematic review of the clinical evidence.” Phytotherapy Research 30(8), 1243-1264
Reviewed several studies and discovered they reported statistically significant improvement in skin disease severity in the turmeric/curcumin treatment groups compared with control groups. These studies looked at skin conditions as diverse as “acne, atopic dermatitis, facial photoaging, oral lichen planus, psoriasis, radiodermatitis, and vitiligo”. Overall, the study finds that there is “early evidence that turmeric/curcumin products and supplements, both oral and topical, may provide therapeutic benefits for skin health.
"Skin whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a dobule-blind and placebo-controlled clinicl trial in healthy women." Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology 7, 267-274.
This study "indicates that GSSG is a potent agent that can promote skin whitening and improve skin condition." The authors speculate that "these effects of GSSG are attributable, at least partly, to the anti-aging action of GSH." Finally, they argue that oxidized glutathione is "likely to be more beneficial" than reduced glutathione, "especially for topical use."
Nutraceutical and antioxidant effects of a delphinidin-rich Maqui berry extract Delphinol: a review.” Minerva Cardioangiologica: A Journal of Heart and Vascular Diseases (63(2 Suppl 1), 1-12
The authors indicate that “the juice of maqui berries was found to be at least tri-fold richer in total polyphenols than in all other berries tested: red grapes, cranberries, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and blackberries.” And the ORAC value “was about three-times higher than corresponding values for other berries tested.” Delphinidins represent the most potent antioxidant anthocyanin and maqui berry is “the richest known natural source of delphinidins.” In terms of benefits for the skin, the author states that “the low molecular size of delphinidins [found in maqui berries] the high bioavailability and the expected good skin tissue distribution make this anthocyanidin a promising candidate for skin-ageing protection. The currently available research on delphinidins points to significant photo-protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging virtues.
"Glutathione and its antiaging and antimelanogenic effects." Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology 10, 147-153. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S128339.
This study "showed that oral glutathione, 250mg/d, in both reduced and oxidized forms effectively influences skin properties. Overall, glutathione in both forms are well tolerated." The subjects demonstrated "a significant reduction in wrinkles compared with those taking placebo,...a tendency towards skin elasticity...compared with placebo," and the "melanin index and ultraviolet spots of all sites including face and arm...tended to be lower than placebo" in subjects taking glutathione.